Notes by Chapter

(These are the numbered endnotes. Lettered endnotes refer to Chinese Characters in the APPENDIX.)


1. Koan, the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese kung-an. This term has many meanings. Here it signifies "story" or "event." In the majority of cases where this term appears in Chapter I, it is used in this sense only; in Chapter II, "The Practice of Zen," it is used largely in a specific sense, denoting the Hua Tou exercise. See Chapter II, p. 72, "The Discourses of Master Hsu Yun," and Chapter III, Footnote 6.

2. Enlightenment. This word is used in this book solely to indicate the transcendental experience of realizing universal Reality. It signifies a spiritual, mystical, and intuitive realization, and should not be understood as a term denoting an intellectual awakening as its common application in association with "The Age of Reason" suggests.

3. Although the dragon and the phoenix are both considered to be auspicious animals by the Chinese, this expression can be used in either a complimentary or a sarcastic sense. While this was ostensibly a compliment, Tien Jan was speaking sarcastically.

4. Eight Worldly Winds is a term widely used by Buddhists to denote the eight worldly influences or interests that fan the passions and thus drive one on forever as a slave in Sangsara. They are: gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy.

5. No-birth (Chinese: wu sheng; Tibetan: skyed wa med ba). This term is a literal translation of the Sanskrit ajata, but this literal rendering is somewhat misleading for those who do not realize that it denotes the nonexistent aspect of being. A better translation is "nonarising," or "nonexisting"—for anything that is "existent" must first be born.

6. The Chinese phrase hua yen means "flower-ornament" or "beautiful garland," denoting the title of an important Mahayana scripture called the Hua Yen Chin or the Garland Sutra (Sanskrit: Avatamsaka Sutra). Because the system and tenets of this philosophy are based upon the Hua Yen or Garland Sutra, it has been called "The philosophy of Hua Yen." This philosophy was established by the founder of the Hua Yen School, Master Tu Hsun of the Tang Dynasty, and has been generally considered as one of the greatest achievements of Chinese Buddhist scholarship. At present, neither a translation of the original text of the Garland Sutra nor of its exegeses and commentaries is available in European languages. The personal opinion of the author is that unless the texts of this Sutra are studied, one can hardly understand the spirit and philosophy of Mahayana Buddhism at its highest level and in its profoundest sense. The Hua Yen Sutra is, indeed, as the Chinese Buddhist proverb has said, "the King of all sutras." It is our high hope that this supreme sutra, together with its commentaries, will soon be translated into the English language. At present the reader may refer to D. T. Suzuki's excellent book, The Essence of Buddhism, wherein some basic tenets of the Hua Yen philosophy are introduced. Briefly speaking, Hua Yen philosophy is the philosophy of totality, the elucidation of the unfathomable Realm of Buddhahood and the brave spirit and profound understanding of the Bodhisattvas—those persons who strive for Enlightenment in order to save sentient beings.

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7. The Eight Consciousnesses. According to the Yogacara philosophy (Buddhist Idealism), the consciousness possessed by each sentient being has eight different functional aspects which are conveniently designated as the "Eight Consciousnesses." Of these, the first five are the Consciousness of the Eye, of the Ear, of the Nose, of the Tongue, and of the Body. The sixth is called "The Consciousness of Discrimination," the seventh, "The Consciousness of Constant Thought" or "Ego," and the eighth, the Alaya or "Store Consciousness." See Chapter II, p. 72, "The Discourse of Master Hsu Yun."

8. Shen Hsiu's stanza to the Fifth Patriarch was:

This body is the Bodhi Tree,
This mind is like the mirror bright;
Take heed to keep it always clean
And let no dust collect upon it.

A complete account of this event may be read in Goddard's Buddhist Bible, pp. 498-502.

9. Ta chi ta yung. This Zen phrase is very difficult to translate. Ta means "great," and chi means "the critical point, time, or event." Chi can also mean "cleverness," "adroitness," or "opportunity," when combined with other words such as chi chiao or chi hui. Ta chi thus means "great opportunity," "great cleverness," "flexibility," or "crisis," implying that the Zen Master knows how to instruct his disciples under different circumstances with great skill and flexibility. When ta yung, meaning "great power and capability," is combined with ta chi, the phrase becomes more expressive and forceful.

10. The Ten Successive Steps of Zen Practice as suggested by Zen Master Yuan Chin are considered to be of great significance, but some of them are very enigmatic, especially points 3 and 6. Detailed commentaries on the text are not available at this time. The following brief explanations or interpretations of points 3, 5, and 6 may be helpful, however:

a. Point 3: When one reaches the state of Satori, he experiences all, and all is embraced by and identical with, the Great Tao. Both sentient and insentient beings are alive in this "Great Whole." Thus even insentient beings are capable of preaching the Dharma.

b. Point 5: The distinguishing "Eye of Dharma" means the capability of making correct discriminations and evaluations of all teachings and all things.

c. Point 6: The meaning of this point is very obscure. The translator presumes that the "Path of the Birds" and the "Road of Beyond," or "Road of Wonder," suggest that advanced yogis should live in solitude for a time in order to mature their Zen realization.

11. Trikaya. The three bodies of Buddha. They are: the Dharmakaya, the Sambhogakaya, and the Nirmanakaya. The Dharmakaya is the self-nature of Buddha, while the Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya are manifestations of Buddha. The Dharmakaya is the void and abstract aspect, and the Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya are the active dynamic aspects.

12. The original text of this sentence as found in the Ch'an Yuan Meng Chiao, and in the Chih Yueh Lu, is very obscure in its meaning: hence different interpretations may be given to it. The translator's opinion is that "the subject matter of the One Form" (Chinese: I se Pien Shih), referred to by the Chief Monk, implied his understanding of "a length of white silk" as being the illumination experience that one attains in the advanced stage of Dhyana. This "understanding" was disapproved and discredited by the challenging monk, Chiu Feng. D. T. Suzuki, in his An Introduction to Zen Buddhism (p. 115), renders this story in quite a different manner. In the last paragraph of the story, as rendered by Suzuki (p. 115, lines 21 to 27), there appears to be some distortion of the original text. For instance, in line 23, "As to getting into a trance [tso t'o li wong] you have shown a splendid example," is definitely a mistranslation. The Chinese phrase tso t'o means to "liberate [oneself in] the sitting posture," and li wong means to "die while standing up." The whole phrase implies the capability of passing away at will in a sitting or standing posture. Though li wong may also be interpreted as "die right away," because the Chinese word li could also imply li k'o meaning "at once," it should not be so interpreted in this case. Furthermore, tso t'o li wong is a technical Zen phrase widely used by all Buddhists. It has never meant "getting into a trance," as Suzuki suggests. (The original Chinese text of this story is given on p. 243, under "Chinese Characters for the Notes," Chapter I, Footnote 12.)


1. Mahamudra is the Prajnaparamita applied in its simplest and most practical form. This teaching is considered to be the highest teaching of Tibetan Buddhism. As a whole, Mahamudra may be thought of as the "Zen Buddhism of Tibet," although its style and idioms may not be identical with those of Zen. Mahamudra is a teaching through which one may realize his own mind in its natural and pristine form. See Evans-Wentz's The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation, and Book II of his Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines.

2. Serene-reflection meditation (Chinese: mo chao ch'an) may also be rendered as "silent-observation meditation," or "meditation of tranquil-contemplation."

3. Wu. This word, as used here, is pronounced according to the "second tone," and is a completely different word from the other "Wu" (Satori). The latter is pronounced according to the "fourth tone." The former "wu" means "nothingness," and the latter, "Enlightenment."

4. Seven Days' Meditation. In order to avoid distractions and interruptions so that they may seriously practice meditation under more favorable conditions, Buddhist devotees sometimes go into retreat for a period, or successive periods, of seven days in a quiet place—alone, or with their fellow brothers in the Dharma.

5. Not every day of the two periods of the "Seven Days' Meditation" has been given here, for the reason that (1) the Master does not preach every day, and (2) only those discourses which are pertinent have been included.

6. "Chang" and "Lee" are two of the most common surnames in China.

7. The original sentence, if literally translated, would read, "The Mind, Intellect, and Consciousness (Chinese: Chin, I, Shih; Sanskrit: Citta, Mana, Vijnana) are hindrances on the Path more obstructive than poisonous snakes and wild beasts. ..." Here Master Tsung Kao used the Yogacara terminology in a very loose and free manner which is, strictly speaking, incorrect and misleading. What he meant was that the "conceptualization," but not the mind itself, is blameworthy. A free translation in this case is, therefore, more desirable.

8. This refers to the seats made of straw and the bamboo chairs specially designed for meditation purposes.

9. I chin (pronounced "ee-chin"). This is a very important Zen term meaning "doubt-sensation" or the feeling of doubt.

The whole system of koan exercises is based upon the generation, and then the breakthrough, of this "doubt-sensation." "Doubt," as used here, is not doubt in the ordinary sense of the word; it is, rather, a special type of doubt—a doubt without content—or, more succinctly, the pure sensation of "doubt" per se. Sometimes the Zen Buddhists also use the term "doubt-mass" (Chinese: I t'uan) to denote that this sensation is like a great mass or load weighing upon one's mind. Though I chin in its original usage denotes the sensation of doubt brought about by the koan exercise, Master Po Shan seemed to have used it in his discourse in a much wider sense, not only denoting the preliminary sensation of doubt originally suggested by the term, but also including almost all the advanced Zen experiences brought forth by the koan exercises.

10. "To revive after death" is a Zen phrase denoting the advanced stage of Enlightenment. One who has reached this stage not only realizes the void aspect (allegorically, death), but also the dynamic aspect (allegorically, life) of being—seeing them as a whole. This realization of the dynamic vitality of all things is what Zen calls "The Great Revival" (Chinese: Ta Huo).

11. The Chinese term yung huo, the state of "flexible-hollowness," is extremely difficult to translate adequately. Yung means "merging," "melting," "harmonious"; and huo means "empty," "hollow," "spacious," etc. When yung and huo arc combined, the term is used in a special sense denoting an "all-free" sensation that Zen practitioners experience. Although "flexible hollowness" is not a very satisfactory translation for yung huo, it is the best the translator can find.

12. "The state of wonder" (Chinese: hua chin) is another untranslatable phrase widely used by Taoists and Zenists. Hua means "transformation," "changing," "melting," "vanishing," and "wonder"; chin means "realm," "state," "experience," etc. Hua chin is thus a state of melting-down of all obstructions, a state of liberation and wonder.

13. Tsen Ch'an (Japanese: Zan-Zen) is to "bore into the work of Zen." Tsen is a verb, meaning to "bore," "pierce," or "penetrate into." Tsen Ch'an thus implies that in practicing Zen one should try to penetrate into the very depths of his mind. The exertion of "penetrating into" is what the tsen word stresses.

14. A Zen expression denoting freedom and liberation.

15. Huo chu is a very strange Zen term, literally meaning a "live sentence" or "live remark," but its connotation is just the reverse of what the literal meaning apparently suggests. These "live remarks" are the utterly unintelligible, inexplicable, absurd, and dead-end type of sayings which Zen uses so frequently, while the "dead remarks" (Chinese: ssu chu) arc the intelligible ones. The book of the Notes in the Forest (Chinese: Ling Chien Lu) quotes Zen Master Tung Shan as saying. "Those remarks within which one may find another remark [intelligible] are called 'dead remarks,' and those within which no other remarks or meanings can be found [unintelligible] are called 'live remarks.' " (See The Great Buddhist Dictionary [in Chinese], by Ting Fu Pao, p. 1666.)

16. Chinese Zen Buddhists divide Buddhism into two distinct groups. One is designated as "The Principle" (Tsung), and the other as "The Doctrine" (Chiao). The former is the teaching of Zen, and the latter is the teaching of all other Buddhist schools, including all the sects of Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism.

17. As prophesied by Buddha himself, Buddhism has been declining with the degeneration of morality in mankind. According to Buddha's prophecy, the progressive decline and degeneration of Buddhism will continue until it disappears from the earth. Then the Buddha Maitreya will descend to this world, and Buddhism will again prevail, this time over the entire earth. The Buddhism of the next period—that of the Buddha Maitreya—will not be subject to the decline-pattern that the Buddhism of this present period—that of the Buddha Sakyamuni—is now undergoing.

18. The Three Kindoms. According to Buddhist cosmology, there are three realms or "universes" wherein dwell three different grades of sentient beings. The highest domain is called "The Domain of Non-form." Sentient beings of this domain have no bodily form, existing only in the expression of different states of consciousness. The second domain is called "The Domain of Form." Sentient beings of this domain have bodily form, but no desires or lusts. The third domain is called "The Domain of Desires." Sentient beings of this domain have many different kinds of desires and fears. Animals, human beings, beings in Hell, and those in certain regions of Heaven all belong to this "Domain of Desire." Sentient beings of the two upper Domains, namely, the "Domain of Form" and the "Domain of Non-form," are those who have gained various stages of Samadhi. Their states of consciousness vary greatly, from the consciousness state of the First Dhyana to that of the Eighth Dhyana. Having absorbed themselves in the great Ecstasy and Illumination, these sentient beings consider themselves to have reached Nirvana. But the truth is that they are only indulging themselves in an ecstatic state of "resemblance to Nirvana." Orthodox Buddhists deem these states to be of little value or significance.

19. The year 1545. The original text reads: "The 25th year of Chia Chin of the Emperor Shih Tsung of Ming [Dynasty]," which is equivalent to a.d. 1545. For the convenience of the reader, the original Chinese dates given in this autobiography have been converted into those of the Christian chronology.

20. In the old days, attaining a high position in the government was the major, if not the only, ambition of Chinese intellectuals. Study was mainly for this purpose.

21. Champion Scholar (Chinese: Chuang Yuan). In imperial days the royal government of China held a national examination every three or four years to select the "most learned" men in China. The champion of this final national examination, known as the Chuang Yuan, would receive the highest honors the nation could bestow. Opportunities for governmental positions were also offered to him. To become the Champion Scholar of the nation was, therefore, the chief ambition of intellectuals in those days.

22. "The Master of Men and Heaven" was a title of respect conferred upon certain highly advanced monks. According to Buddhist tradition, only those monks capable of being Masters or Teachers of all men and heavenly beings merited this title.

23. Preliminary official examinations were held by the district or provincial governments in order to select their candidates for the final national examination. Anyone who passed the district or provincial examinations would also be honored by the government, and good opportunities for governmental posts were also offered to him. (See Footnote 21, above.)

24. The Ten Mysterious Gates (Chinese: shih hsuan men) are the ten basic principles of Hua Yen, by means of which the Hua Yen philosophy of totality is expounded.

25. The meaning of this sentence is not very clear. "Subduing the Ox" probably implies accomplishing the successive stages of Zen work, as illustrated in the "Ox-Herding" pictures. See Reps's Zen Flesh, Zen Bones, the "10 Bulls" by Kakuan, transcribed by Nyogen Senzaki and Paul Reps, pp. 165-187.

26. Ch'an ping ("Zen-sickness," or "The sickness that has arisen through Zen practice") refers to the hindrances and mishaps that one may encounter in the practice of Zen.

27. "The Miraculous Understanding of Avalokitesvara" (Chinese: Kwati Yin Yuan Tung). "Kwan Yin" is the Chinese translation of "Avalokitesvara," but there is no clear- cut definition or meaning of the phrase yuan tung. It is difficult, therefore, to translate this phrase very accurately. Yuan means "round," "complete," or "perfect"; and tung means "thorough understanding," or "thorough awakening." "The Miraculous Understanding of Avalokitesvara" is, therefore, a free and tentative translation.

28. "Mutual Turning-into" is a frequently used term in Hua Yen philosophy. (See Suzuki's The Essence of Buddhism.)

29. Vajra-seat, or "The Diamond Seat."

30. Maitreya is the coming Buddha.

31. According to an old Chinese legend, under the jaw of a black dragon there lies a most precious pearl. Hence the term li-lung (black dragon) symbolizes the most precious thing to be found in the world.

32. Wu. The "Wu" word, as used here, is pronounced according to the "second tone." (See Footnote 3, above.)

33. Travel-for-study visits. In order to find the Guru who may help one most, visiting different teachers and studying under them are necessary for all Zen students. Zen Buddhists, therefore, established a tradition and system called "Travel-for-study" (Chinese: tsen fang) to facilitate and further the Zen student's progress. After basic training in the monastery, the monk is encouraged to begin his travel-for-study period.

34. See Footnote 9, above.

35. Most Chinese monasteries have three major courts separated by three walls and gates.

36. Ocean-seal Samadhi (Chinese: Hai yin san mei) is the Samadhi of Buddhahood. Since the ocean is the destination of all rivers and is also a great mirror that is capable of reflecting all manifestations in the world, it is figuratively used to describe the all-reflecting Wisdom of Buddhahood now expressed in the term Samadhi. This expression is frequently used by Zen and Hua Yen scholars.

37. Chao Chou was a remarkable Zen Master. He was regarded as one of the most acute and profound Zen teachers, and looked upon both as a symbol and as an example to be emulated by all Zen Buddhists.

38. The six organs are the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. "The organ of mind" is a very controversial subject in Buddhist philosophy. Many scholars of the Yogacara School believe that the Seventh, or Ego, Consciousness, is the organ of mind.

39. Fa Yan (?-1104) was known as the "Fifth Patriarch" by the Lin Chi School, and should not be confused with the original Fifth Patriarch, Hung Jeng, the teacher of Hui Neng.


1. This is a well-known saying of Mahamudra, widely used in Tibet. The Tibetan is:

Snah wa ma byin shen pa byin
Shen pa khyod kyis Naropa

2. "Pu-shuo-po" ("not to speak too plainly") was rightly translated by Hu Shih in his article, "Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China," Philosophy East and West, III (No. 1, April, 1953), 3-24, though his understanding and interpretation of Ch'an were purely from the historian's viewpoint and so are not always philosophically sound. Suzuki gave an elaborate explanation of "pu-shuo-po," which covered almost three pages in his article, "A Reply to Hu Shih," Philosophy East and West, III (No. 1, April, 1953, 25-46). Here I am afraid Suzuki missed the point. He stressed only the inexpressible or inscrutable aspect of Zen Truth.

3. There are three different schools of thought in Buddhism concerning the relationship between the klesas (passions or desires) and Bodhi, Sangsara, and Nirvana. Theravada stresses the necessity of destroying the passions in order to attain Nirvana. General Mahayana advocates the transformation of the passions into Bodhi. The third view emphasizes the identity of the sentient being and the Buddha, of the passions and Bodhi, and of Sangsara and Nirvana, since from the ultimate viewpoint there is no difference between the pure and the impure. This last view is held by both Zen and Tantra.

4. Wu, pronounced in the "fourth tone." This word differs from the other "Wu". See Footnote 3, Chapter II, above.

5. This is a well-known Zen proverb and is used widely by Zen students in China.

6. Hua Tou ("the essence of the sentence"). Suzuki uses "koan exercise" instead of "Hua Tou exercise" in most of his writings. See Suzuki, Zen Buddhism, p. 139. Although both "koan" and "Hua Tou" may be used to denote the "inquiry exercise of Zen," the latter is original and more accurate. "Koan" implies the entire Zen story, including all the events, plus the main question at issue, and therefore it is a general term, while "Hua Tou" is very specific. "Hua Tou" denotes only the question, not the whole story; and in most cases only the "gist," "highlight," or "essence," so to speak, of the question is implied.

7. This story is selected from Chu Hung (1535-1616), Exhortation on the Advance Through Ch'an Gates (Ch'an kuan tse chin).

8. "Dharma" is a term widely used in Buddhism. While it has many meanings, the two most commonly used are

(a) the Buddhist doctrine, or the teaching of Buddha, and

(b) being, existence, subject, principle, etc. Dharma is here used in the latter sense.

9. Hsuan Chuang (596-664), Chen Wei Shih Lun (Vijnapti-matratasiddhi-Sastra), Chapter 7.

Hsüan-tsang (c. 602 – 664)

10. The Eight Consciousnesses are: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, ego, and storehouse consciousnesses.

11. According to Sthiramati, there are only three portions in each consciousness. In contrast to Dharmapala's theory of four portions, Sthiramati's is much clearer and simpler. The four-portion theory as propounded by Dharmapala seems to be redundant and it has been criticized by a number of Yogacara scholars in recent years. Some explanation of the four portions is given by Junjiro Taka-kusu, The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (Honololu: University of Hawaii, 1947), p. 88. The reader is also referred to p. 89, where the three object-realms which are in close relation with the four-portions theory are explained. However, Takakusu's explanation of the object-realm of mere shadow is too concise and thus misleading: "... 2. The object-domain of mere shadow or illusion. The shadow-image appears simply from one's own imagination and has no real existence. Of course, it has no original substance as a ghost which does not exist at all. Only the sixth, sensecenter, functions on it and imagines it to be." This passage gives the impression that the Sixth Consciousness—the most active and versatile among the Eight Consciousnesses—which people generally call "mind," is a faculty which senses solely the delusive images. This is not true. The Pa Shih Kuei Chu Sung, by Hsuan Chuang, explains the Sixth Consciousness in relation to the three object-realms in the following sentence: "It includes the three natures, three measurements and also three object domains." This sentence describes the Sixth Consciousness as embracing all the three natures—good, bad, and neutral; the three measurements—direct, indirect, and erroneous; and the three object realms of nature, of mere shadow, and of the original substance. Thus we know that the Sixth Consciousness functions not merely on the delusive images which characteristically belong to the erroneous measurement but also functions on the object-realm of nature which belongs to the direct measurement, and in some cases on the object of the original substance.

12. For this sentence, see Hu Shih, "Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China," Philosophy East and West, III (No. 1, April, 1953), 3-24. Hu Shih translated it as "The one word 'knowledge' is the gateway to all mysteries."

13. Suzuki, "A Reply to Hu Shih," Philosophy East and West, III (No. 1, April, 1953), 31-32.

14. Discourses of the Six Patriarchs, p. 18.

15. Te-shan goto egen. Book VII: Dianikon Zokuzokyo, p. 116.

16. The Eight Negations are: no arising, no extinction, no eternity, no cessation, no oneness, no manifoldness, no coming, no going.

17. Transmission of the Lamp, Book V: Taisho Daizo- kyo, No. 2076; Vol. LI, p. 240.

18. Chin is a Chinese unit of weight equal to about 1 1/3 pounds avoirdupois.

19. See the koan of "Drawing the Bow After the Thief Had Left," National Translation of the Collective Works in Zen Studies, XVI, 13.

20. See the koan of "The Cold Fountain and the Ancient Stream," National Translation of the Collective Works in Zen Studies, XVI, 13.

21. See the Prajnaparamita-hrdaya Sutra. [Heart sutra]

22. Szu liao chien is expediently translated here as the "Four Distinctions." It may also be rendered as "Four Distinctions and Selections."

23. See the "Discourse of Zen Master Lin-chi Hui-chao of Chen-chou," in National Translations of the Collected Works in Zen Studies, V, p. 5.

24. Ibid.

25. See pp. 145, 146.

26. See "Discourse of Master Lin-chi," p. 3.

27. Ibid., p. 20.

28. Ibid., pp. 3-4.

29. Ibid., p. 3.

30. See Transmission of the Lamp, Book I, p. 4.

31. See "Discourse of Master Lin-chi," p. 26.

32. See The Five Ranks of Lord and Vassal, p. 11.


1. Dharmadhatu is a term widely used by Hua Yen scholars denoting the infinite universes that penetrate and embrace one another in the absolute realm of Totality. See D. T. Suzuki's The Essence of Buddhism, Lecture II.

2. The quotation referred to is as follows:
"Although it is not necessary to expound here all the many aspects of the doctrine, one of the more important of them should receive some attention, namely, 'the reciprocal character of mind and Prana,' which means that a certain type of mind or mental activity is invariably accompanied by a Prana of corresponding character, whether transcendental or mundane. For instance, a particular mood, feeling, or thought is always accompanied, manifested, or reflected by a Prana or breathing of corresponding character and rhythm. Thus anger produces not merely an inflamed thought-feeling, but also a harsh and accentuated 'roughness' of breathing. On the other hand, when there is calm concentration on an intellectual problem, the thought and the breathing exhibit a like calmness. When the concentration is in a state of profound thinking, as during an effort to solve a subtle problem, unconsciously the breath is held. When one is in a mood of danger, pride, envy, shame, arrogance, love, lust, and so on, simultaneously there arises the 'air,' or Prana, of anger, pride, envy, shame, arrogance, love, lust, and so on; and this 'air' can be felt immediately within oneself. In deep Samadhi no thought arises; so there is no perceptible breathing. At the initial moment of enlightenment, which is also the moment of the total transformation of normal consciousness, the Prana, too, undergoes a revolutionary transformation. Accordingly, every mood, thought, and feeling, whether simple, subtle, or complex, is accompanied by a corresponding or reciprocal Prana.

"In the higher states of meditation, the circulation of the blood is slowed down almost to cessation, perceptible breathing ceases, and the yogi experiences some degree of illumination, or 'brightness,' together with the thoughtfree state of mind. Then not only does a change of consciousness occur, but also a change in the physiological functioning of the body. In the body of a fully enlightened being, the breathing, the pulse, the circulatory and nerve systems are quite different from those of ordinary men. Much evidence in support of this fact is available from Hindu, Tibetan, and Chinese sources."

3. See the author's "Yogic Commentary" in Evans- Wentz's Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines (2nd edition), pp. xli and xlii.

4. For further details, consult Evans-Wentz's Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines (2nd edition), pp. 187-210, the author's forthcoming Esoteric Teachings from the Tibetan Tantra, and other books referring to the subject.

5. Mandala means "circle." In its general sense this term is used by Tantrism to denote any individual unit, either Sangsaric or Nirvanic, in the universe. In its specific sense it implies the "city" or "residence" of a specific deity. This "City of Buddha" is usually depicted with a chief Buddha in the center and a number of escorting deities placed in a circle around him. The over-all picture of a Tantric Mandala is strikingly similar to that of the structure of an atom or solar system. The Mandala is considered by Tantric scholars as a symbol of the Universe, in either its macrocosmic or its microcosmic sense.

6. Elucidation of the Hidden Profundity Sutra (Chinese: Chieh sheng mi chin; Sanskrit: Sandhi-nirmocana-Sutra).

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